Style guides

    There are a number of different referencing systems or styles in use at ANU. Usually, your College, discipline, or school will indicate which they prefer; often in the course outline or on the College website. You may be required to use more than one style, particularly if you are enrolled in different Colleges. Students doing both Law and Psychology, for example, would have to use footnotes in Law and author-date citations in Psychology.

    Regardless of your referencing system, you should follow a style guide that gives detailed rules and recommendations for that style. For some styles such as AGLC, there is only way to reference sources and thus all AGLC style guides should have the same rules. For other styles, such as Harvard, the rules are not so well defined. You will find differences between the guides. In this case what is important is that you are consistent, and always apply the same rules in one piece of work.

    There are a number of referencing software tools which will automatically apply the chosen referencing style in your document. ANU offers EndNote for all staff and students. More information and training is available through the ANU Library.

    Referencing tools

    A general referencing tool can assist in understanding and using referencing styles. A useful example is:

    Monash University also has comprehensive in depth guides to a number of the styles commonly used at ANU

    Guides

    Below are referencing style guides for many of the common styles in use around the university.

     

    AGLC (Australian Guide to Legal Citation)

    The AGLC is footnote referencing system produced by the Melbourne University Law Review Association and provides Australia with a uniform system of legal citation. It is designed for academics, legal practitioners, law students and the judiciary, and is a valuable tool for legal writing and research.

    Library resource

    Online resource

     

    APA (American Psychological Association)

    The APA referencing style uses author date parenthetical, in text citations based on the Harvard style. It is commonly used in Psychology, but it is also used in other disciplines.

    Library resource

    Online resource

     

    Chicago Manual of Style

    The Chicago Manual of Style is the most widely consulted of all style manuals. It includes provisions for footnote referencing and author-date referencing. The Chicago Manual's footnote referencing system is widely used in the arts and humanities.

    Library resource

    Online resource

     

    Harvard

    The Harvard style is a generic term for any referencing system that uses author-date references in the text of the document, either within or at the end of a sentence. The full citation details are listed alphabetically at the end of the document. There is no definitive style guide for the Harvard style. The key to using the system is consistency throughout your document. A number of universities and organisations base their Harvard style on the Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS) guide.

    Library resource

    Online resource

     

    IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

    The IEEE referencing style is used in the fields of engineering and computer science. The in text citation are numbered and the reference list contains the full details, ordered as they appear in the main text.

    Online resource

     

    MLA (Modern Language Association of America)

    The MLA style uses brief parenthetical in text citations linked to an alphabetised list at the end of the document. The MLA style is often used in literature and linguistics.

    The MLA style is published in two different publications: MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing and MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. These two publications contain identical guidelines for referencing.

    Library resource

    Online resource

     

    Vancouver

    Vancouver is a footnoting referencing system sometimes used in the health sciences. Like the Harvard system there is no official style guide, but the US National Library of Medicine's style guide is now considered the most authoritative manual on this type of referencing.

    Online resource