How referencing works

    Referencing styles

    There are a number of different referencing systems or styles in use at ANU. Regardless of the style, there are two parts to referencing:

    • Firstly there is the in-text citations which appear directly after the quote or idea they are referencing and indicate that you have used someone else's words or ideas (either with a footnote or bracketed reference). A sentence in your writing may have more than one reference.
    • Secondly there is the complete reference which includes the full referencing information for the source. This can be in a reference list at the end of your paper or in a footnote at the bottom of your page.

    Citations and references are not included as part of the word count (unless otherwise indicated).

    Two main approaches

    The two main approaches to referencing are footnotes (or endnotes) and author-date. Both these approaches have the citation and reference parts described above.

    Footnotes where numbers (slightly above the line) are inserted in your text at the end of a sentence or immediately following a direct or indirect quotation. The information about the source of each numbered reference is given at the bottom of each page of your text followed by a complete bibliographic list at the end of the paper.

    Author-date where all references are cited in the body of your text. The references are brief (surname, year of publication, page number) and the full citation is listed in alphabetical order at the end of the paper.

    Examples of using each to these two approaches is given on the author-date and footnote pages. More detailed and specific guidelines for particular style are given in style guides.

    Key points

    • There is no standard referencing style used at ANU. 
    • Two main ways to reference: footnotes (footnotes, endnotes) and in text citations (commonly known as the 'author date' system).
    • Two parts to referencing: citations, which appear directly after the quote or idea; reference lists, with full referencing information in alphabetical order