R.M.W. Dixon. 1997. The rise and fall of
languages. CUP. * refers to the
R.M.W. Dixon. 2002. Australian languages. CUP.
supporting equilibrium <<50% :
Harvey, Mark. 1997. The temporal interpretation of linguistic
in the Top End, pp.179-185 in Archaeology and Linguistics:
Australia in Global Perspective, edited by Patrick McConvell &
Nicholas Evans. Melbourne: OUP. * 'The importance of death taboos and
diffusion' * pp.181-185 cites the 1984 predecessor, including:
I would agree with Alpher and Nash that the presently available
does not support the proposal that death taboos play a significant role
in patterns of lexical replacement." (p.182)
Evans, Nicholas. 2005. Australian languages reconsidered: a
Dixon (2002). Oceanic Linguistics
oft-repeated opinion that vocabulary changes rapidly in Australian
languages, because a taboo on pronouncing the name of a deceased person
drives lexemes out of use is shown to be false by Alpher and Nash
(1999)." p.791 of Johanna Nichols and Tandy Warnow. 2008. Tutorial on
computational linguistic phylogeny. Language and Linguistics Compass
2.5,760-820. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-818X.2008.00082.x *
also for test list, p.765
supporting application of lexicostatistics:
Peter Sutton. 2003.
Native Title in Australia: An
Perspective. CUP. p.163
for 'correspondence mimicry':
Evans. 1998. Iwaidja mutation and its origins, pp. 115-149 in Case,
Typology, and Grammar. In Honor of Barry J.
Blake, ed. by Anna Siewierska & Jae
Jung Song. (Typological Studies in Language 38) Amsterdam: John
Aikio, Ante. 2007.
Etymological nativization of loanwords: a case study of Saami and
Finnish, pp. 17–52 in Saami
Linguistics, ed. by Ida Toivonen & Diane Nelson. John
Benjamins. * preprint
Nicholas Evans "that multilingual speakers of Aboriginal
are often highly aware of sound correspondences between the languages
they speak", p174n11 in 'Doubled up all over again: borrowing, sound
change and reduplication in Iwaidja', Morphology 19.2 (October
April and Robert McMahon. 2005. Language classification by numbers,
OUP; also in their 'Keeping contact in the
family: approaches to language classification and contact-induced
change' in Matras,
A. McMahon & Vincent 2006:68.
Nichols and Warnow (2008:765) (see above)
Syrjänen, Kaj, Terhi Honkola, Kalle Korhonen, Jyri Lehtinen,
Outi Vesakoski, and Niklas Wahlberg. 2013. Shedding more light on
language classification using basic vocabularies and phylogenetic
methods: A case study of Uralic. Diachronica
30.3(January),323-352. DOI: 10.1075/dia.30.3.02syr * p331n7
McConvell, Patrick. 2020. The spread of Pama-Nyungan in Australia, pp. 422–462 in The language of hunter-gatherers. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781139026208.017
William. 2020. English as a lingua franca in the context of a
sociolinguistic typology of contact languages, chap. 2, pages 44–74 in
Anna Mauranen & Svetlana Vetchinnikova (eds) Language change: The impact of English as a lingua franca. Cambridge University Press. https://books.google.com.au/books?id=ldsCEAAAQBAJ * pp53-54 'Although some have claimed more extensive borrowing in small-scale
(low-population) societies, surveys of borrowing patterns indicate this
is not the case (Alpher & Nash 1999; Bowern et al. 2011)'
Urban, Matthias. 2021. The geography and development of language isolates. Royal Society Open Science 8: 202232. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.202232
* p12 "But there is possible sociolinguistic influence on communicative
behaviour—as when e.g. Australian languages are said to reach a
Banks' vocabulary (p.11) is in NLA Call Number M686 microfilm
reel, National Library of Australia.
Sorensen, Arthur P. 1967. Multilingualism in the northwest
substitute for Alpher 1997 reference: Alpher, Barry. 2002. Can
lexicostatistics contribute an absolute time-scale to discussions of
continuity of occupation
in Native Title determinations?, pp.245-258 in Linguistics and Native
Title, ed. by John Henderson & David Nash. Canberra:
Aboriginal Studies Press,
Title Research Series, AIATSIS.
Harvey, Mark. 1997. The temporal interpretation of linguistic
in the Top End, pp.179-185 in Archaeology and linguistics:
Australia in global perspective, edited by Patrick McConvell &
Nicholas Evans. Melbourne: OUP. * pp.180-1 questions Dixon (1980)'s
of 40%-60% equilibrium level
Elmendorf, William W. 1970. Word tabu and change rates: tests of a hypothesis, pp.74–85 in Earl H Swanson (ed.), Languages and cultures of western North America: Essays in honor of Sven S. Liljeblad. Pocatello: Idaho State University Press. https://trove.nla.gov.au/version/25841618 * about situation of Columbia-BellaCoola 12%, Twana-BellaCoola 15%, Columbia-Twana 19% on Swadesh list
Keesing, Roger M. and Jonathan Fifi'i. 1969. Kwaio word tabooing
in its cultural context. Journal of
the Polynesian Society 78:154-177.
Simons, Gary F. 1982. Word taboo and comparative Austronesian
linguistics (Solomon Islands). A paper presented at the Third
International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Denpasar, Bali,
Indonesia. 19-24 January 1981. 61pp. SIL microfiche 82-0005. Pacific Linguistics C-76:157-226.
Kuuk-Yak (as on Fig. 3 p.18) is shown as a close sister-dialect of
Kuuk-Thaayorre. That is a lexicostatistical result (only). On the basis
of innovations, Kuuk-Yak decends directly from the root of the tree.
p.12, n8, line 4: for 'and g' read 'and q'
p.17, Fig. 2 caption: add 'Ktj (Kurrtjar)'
p.17, Fig. 2: add 'HR' directly south of 'AL'
p.21n10: for 'Adnyathamathanha' read 'Adnyamathanha'
p.33: delete final parenthesis ) at end of middle paragraph
p.35, note 25: for 'disyllabic forms of the root alternating with
ones' read 'monosyllabic forms of the root alternating with disyllabic
p.40, line 5: for 'Oy-ka-ngand' read 'Oykangand'
p.43, second-last par: for 'cloumn' read 'column'
p.45: 'Galali' in the Table is the same as 'Garlali' at the bottom
of the page
p.45, in Table 7: for 'Wankumara' read 'Wangkumara' (twice)
p.46, line 17 up: for 'some which' read 'some of which'
p.47, line 3: for "the OGVV's" read "OGVV's"
p.49: move last two lines from Alpher 1997 reference to Alpher 1990
reference, and add 'Draft.' to Alpher 1997 reference.
p.51: in Nash 1982, for 'kurdungurtu' read 'kurdungurlu'
p.53: for 'Barr' read 'Barry'
p.53, Appendix title: for 'Lexicostatical' read 'Lexicostatistical'
p.54, in both lists: add "H71" after "leaf" (item 47.)
p.55, in both lists: change "B20" to "B22" after "spear (n.)" (item
p.22, Table 1: row 5, 120 wd, YY and YTh: '8' and '4' should be
p.12, line 23 and note 9: 'ch'; p.24, last line: 'wangal' -
be plain italic rather than underlined
p.19, mid: for "Ogrady" read "O'Grady"
p.40, line 8: for 'none the less' read 'nonetheless'
p.49: italicise book title (twice) Boundary Rider: essays in honour
of Geoffrey O'Grady
We estimate the degree to which languages resort to borrowing as a
of lexical replacement, within a group of neighbouring languages of
Cape York Peninsula, using several methods: (1) sound correspondences
correspondence mimicry; (2) the proportion of "local" words in single
lists; and (3) the creation of the vocabulary of special registers. We
find that borrowing accounts for at most half of lexical replacement in
these languages, and most usually is well below half. We demonstrate
this rate is crucial in the prediction of what fraction of vocabulary
in the long term be common to two neighbouring languages (the
percentage') in a model of lexical similarity that does not distinguish
borrowings from common retentions. We then apply these findings to the
case study, and compare the methods of lexicostatistical subgrouping
and without recognition of loans), to results from classification by
means. We find substantial agreement, and that the effect of "borrowing
to equilibrium" on lexicostatistical subgrouping is tolerably small.