Last changed 10 February 2012
Under construction:
complex verbs to be added...
December 1979
[with additions in square brackets]

Warlmanpa Verbs Roots

This list arranges Warlmanpa verb themes by conjugation, and within each conjugation arranges themes alphabetically under each root. The conjugations are numbered to show correspondences with the five conjugations of Warlpiri as numbered in the Yuendumu dictionary [(Hale 1974)]. [The citation form is the IMPerative.]

Orthography also follows the Warlpiri conventions, with special use here of '2' to mark reduplication: wapurturl(2)-wanga stands for the pair wapurturl-wanga and wapurturl-wapurturl-wanga while the latter alone is represented as wapurturl-2-wanga-.

[There are 43 (monomorphemic) Warlmanpa verb roots.] The statistics of conjugation membership are:

conjimperativehow many
1awangka1
1b-ngka /i—2
1c-ka /C—2
1d-rra2
2-ka /V—24
3-ngka /a,u—7
4-nyja1
5-nta4 + inceptives

In addition to the inflexional suffixes tabulated at the beginning of each conjugation list, there are these suffixes:

PAST HABITUAL=
PAST + rra
IRREALIS=
IMP + rla
(IMP = imperative)
COUNTERFACTUAL=
INF + kurla
(INF = infinitive)
INCEPTIVE
built on INF — see 5th conjugation
NOMIC=
INF (with final i for a) + ni

and directionals (following verb word):

CENTRIFUGAL=
in IMP: -pa


in PAST: final a for u
CENTRIPETAL=
in IMP: -rti


otherwise: -rni, -rnu (except pan-) (assimilates to preceding u)

Note that the most freely combing preverbs — such as yirrkin- 'comitative', pawarrayi- 'all' — are omitted from this list, and some preverbs retained here may be particles.

1st conjugation (7 roots)


1a1b1c1d

'speak''die''go''sit, be'
IMPwangkapalu(ng)kapankakarra
PASTwanganyupalungupanangukangu
PRES
wanganya
palungunya
pannya
kanya
FUT
wanga(mi)
pali(mi)
pana(mi)
kami
POT
wangama
palima
panama
kama
INF
wanganja
palinja
panja
kanja
PRESENT CENTRIPETAL

pantinya


1a wangka

wangka talk

1b -ngka i-final stem

pali- 'die'
parti- rise , leave , start off

1c -ka consonant-final stem

pan-ka go
jin-ka burn , melt (trans, intrans)

1d -rra

-ja-rra become
ka-rra be

2nd conjugation (25 roots) -ka vowel-final stem


2


'put, place''strike'
IMPyakapaka(ka)
PASTyarnupakarnu
PRES
yannya
pakanya
FUT
yanmi
pakan(mi)
POT
yanma
pakanma
INF
yanja
pakanja

nga-ka 1. tell 2. call someone something 3. scold
kinyja-ka wet
winyja-ka leave alone
paka-ka hit , chop
waka-ka climb
nguka-ka drink
la-ka hit with missile , shoot
yila-ka drip , leak , melt
karla-ka poke , spear
murla-ka copulate with
jama-ka grind (trans.)
nama-ka crush , weigh down , stomp on
kuma-ka cut
kipa-ka twist together
kupa-ka cook (trans.)
ngarta-ka trim
marta-ka have
lamarta-ka hold
ya-ka put
ngaya-ka void (as in lay an egg, give birth to, defecate, urinate)
-jiya-ka cook (trans.) (in some combinations)
kiya-ka throw
piya-ka break , bite, cut
pangi-ka scratch , dig
wayi-ka search for

3rd conjugation (6 roots) -ngka a,u-final stem


3a
3b

'see''cry''chase'
IMPnyangkalungka
kapu(ngka)
PASTnyangulungu
PRES
nyanganya
lungunya

FUT
nyanyi
linyi

POT
nyanya
linya

INF
nyanyja
linyja


3a
ka-ngka take
nya-ngka see, look

3b
lu-ngka cry , howl
pu-ngka act on, kill
kapu-ngka chase, follow, track
jutpu-ngka run
yu-ngka give

4th conjugation (1 root)


4

'eat'
IMPnganyja
PASTngarnu
PRES
ngarninya
FUT
nganmi
POT
nganma
INF
ngarnin(y)ja

nga-nyja eat (extends to drink )

5th conjugation (4 roots)


5
INCEPTIVES

'fall''go fall'
'go carry'
IMPwantawanjirra
kanyjarra
PASTwanuwinjinu
kanyjanu
PRES
wannya
wanjinya
kanjanya
FUT
wanmi
wanjin(mi)
kanyjan(mi)
POT
wanma
wanjinma
kanjanma
INF
wanja



ma-nta get , take
wa-nta fall , drop
-ya-nta go (only in combinations)


Return to 1979 vocabulary introduction
Return to Warlmanpa page

Last changed 10 February 2012; correction 11 November 2017
2012 David Nash
URL http://www.anu.edu.au/linguistics/nash/aust/wpa/wpa-verbs.html