Ian Buckley MB, BS, 1951;
PhD, (Pathology), 1961
Dr Ian Buckley
Education and Research
Early education, Ivanhoe Grammar School, Head, Rev. Sydney Buckley.
Post-WW2, Medicine at Melbourne University, graduating 1951. In 1955,
began medical research (Experimental Pathology) Department of Pathology,
under Prof. E.S.J.King.
1963-4, UICC Eleanor Roosevelt Fellow, Charles Pomerat's laboratory,
Pasadena Foundation for Medical Research, Pasadena, California.
1965, Research Fellow, Keith Porter's Cell Biology Laboratory, Harvard
1966-7, NH&MRC Research Fellow, Dept. of Pathology, Melbourne University.
1968-1990 Senior Fellow, Department of Experimental Pathology, John
Curtin School of Medical Research, ANU, under Prof. Colin Courtice where
continued studies on the phenomena and control of cellular (and intra-cellular)
movements, including the movements involved in tumour cell invasion
and metastasis. See below, and 'Mysteries of Cellular Motion'
In Frank Fenner and David Curtis, 'The John Curtin School
of Medical Research: The First Fifty Years 1948-1998', pp. 255-258,
Brolga Press, 2001.
Born, Melbourne,1925, son of Harry and Doris Buckley, one of five,
four of whom served in World War II. Miraculously my oldest brother,
Noel, survived Iceland-Murmansk convoys (anti-submarine role) as an
officer in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (RNVR). As RAAF navigator
assigned (under the Empire Air Training Scheme) to RAF Coastal
Command's 53 Squadron, my brother Allan Edward did not survive the war
defending Britain's trans-Atlantic life-lines against Germany's submarines
'authorised' through the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935.
My sister Joan, an Army officer, served in New Guinea as physiotherapist.
A late starter, I trained and served as RAAF pilot, 1944-45. Too young,
my young sister Dora remained at school.
Since retirement I've concentrated on researching and writing about
the origins of the overseas wars Australia has been involved in, an
interest followed since WW2, working with the Medical Association
for Prevention of War, an organisation earlier formed in Britain
by noted epidemiologist Richard Doll (of 'smoking cancer fame') and
others responding to the threat of mutual nuclear annihilation brought
on by the Cold War.
A summary of the background causes of the wars Australia has been involved
in over the past 100 years is found hereunder:
Australia's Foreign Wars: Origins, Costs, Future?!
Eleven historically-based essays to inform and warn Australians
and others of the means through which people here and across the world
have been led into wars not of their making, wars entirely contrary
to their interests and well-being. Indeed, wars counter-productive to
all participants and thus, in Churchill's clearly understated terms,
"unnecessary" as explained here:
Or illustrated on: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/australiaswars1.htm
A Case History: Britain, Empire Decline, and the Origins of WW1:
Or, Might the Lessons of the Boer War have 'Saved the Day.
An Emeritus talk of July 18, 2007 considers the circumstances which
led Britain to help generate, then take part in the First World War,
a war so catastrophically counter-productive to all peoples involved.
Illustrated at: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/casehistory.htm
The WW1 Gallipoli Campaign: Aims, Options, Outcomes
Essay based on Emeritus talk of April 16, 2008 describing the reasons
behind Britain's plans to invade Turkey during WWI, its unsuccessful
efforts to entice as Allies the Balkan States, the failed all-naval
assault to reach Constantinople, and (only) then its hastily organized
land campaign, all of which ended so tragically for the people of all
countries involved. http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/pages/ian_buckley/Ian_Buckley_Emeritus_L2_2.pdf
Also at: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/australiagallipoli.htm
Learning from Adam Smith - Help at Hand Today
Following Adam Smith's wisdom we might come to understand where the
modern industrial/financial world went wrong, thus showing us how the
world's economies might be justly optimised to prevent further wars,
save our over-stressed planet and provide human justice and agreeable
living for all. http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/pages/ian_buckley/Adam_Smith_Essay.pdf
'Causes of War' in the Context of International Trade: World
War One as just one cost of rejecting Adam Smith's wise Counsel'
Essay on the ill-conceived Western cultural evolutionary path,
from the economic corruptions of 18th Century Europe, - with their deliberative
exploitations and internecine wars, - to today's even more exaggerated
corruptions, parallel exploitations and wars leading all to environmental
chaos and internal economic collapse. http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/docs/WWI_Causes_EF_Fin13.pdf
From Adam Smith to the Present Mess via Depressions and Two World
Wars: A Short History of Economic and Christian Corruption Across the
Essay outlining how the West's highly discriminatory world that
Adam Smith condemned, has allowed itself to ignore his wise counsel
towards fair trade that could establish a satisfied peaceful world free
of war, - choosing instead to continue its preferred unjust special
privileges which have brought world of people and Nature to the brink
Survival Through the 21st Century
Appendix D, In Australia's Foreign Wars, a talk to ANU Women's
The Hague Conferences and Weapons of Mass Destruction; Our Century's
Appendix B, In Australia's Foreign Wars, MAPW Canberra,
Mercantile Origins of the Western World's Current Moral, Economic,
Military, Political and Environmental Crises: A Short History of Humankind's
Essay dealing with how Western Society's derision of Adam Smith's
analysis of Europe's mercantile political economy - which sought to
dominate via monopoly, colonization and war - would end in mutual ruin,
its powers rising and falling via mutually catastrophic wars and depressions.
And yet how, still not satisfied, the West's continuing full-on arms
production-led militarized system has brought our common home, the world
of Nature to the brink.
'Causes of War' - Australian War Memorial (Education)
Through the good offices of Dr Peter Stanley, then AWM's Senior
Historian, is reproduced hereunder in what was freely accessible for
educational purposes on AWM's website from 1997. As seen, it comprised
a selection of references taken from books, journals and online sources
to assist our understanding of the historical and current origins of
war, its destructive effects, how it might be prevented, what might
be done to replace unbridled resource and market competition and save
both humankind and the planet's absolutely crucial life-supporting environment.
It also occurred as a link on Stephen Luscombe's excellent The British
Empire website. Without explanation or notice it vanished in 2007.
Its archived version appears here, most links having been disabled.
Given that the AWM names its Galleries after armaments manufacturers,
that may not surprise, yet it is a tragic betrayal of its proper aims
as expressed by Lord Gowrie in his 1941 war-time opening speech.(see
Australia's Governor-General, Lord Gowrie's speech opening the
Australian War Memorial, Armistice Day 1941 His plea for honest
history, preventing war, and all round sanity.
The Hague Conferences and Weapons of Mass Destruction; Our Century's
Appendix B, In Australia's Foreign Wars, MAPW Canberra,
1999. Barbara Tuchman exposes insanity.
The West's Long-failed Economic System: Where to From Here?
Ian Buckley and Nikolaus Fominas
On how the mismanaged Western leadership of the world has failed to
keep faith with the commitments it made after two World Wars. Thus,
instead of keeping faith with its promises of economic justice, fairness
and guarantees to self rule and national independence, it continued
with the disastrous mercantile practices which have long been dragging
the world into its current catastrophic predicaments
Looking Back - Pathology Meets Biology at the Cellular Level
Working with living tissue observed microscopically in rabbit 'ear
chambers' subjected to microprobe radio-frequency injury, one saw intra-
and extra-vascular 'bubbles', clear floating vesicles (attracting leucocytes)
or, whenever aggregating, 'tubules'. In the 19th Century
working with nervous tissue Rudolf Virchow saw similar formations he
termed 'myelin figures'. In Paris. Nageotte understood the vesicles
as bi-molecular lipid layers, these later known to form from phospholipids,
soaps and other amphipathic sources. Perfused with phospholipase A,
(A) whole cell
overview with faint ER grey strands.
(B) two images of clear
at 30 second interval
(C) cell showing
dilated networks in motion
with 20 second interval
As seen above, movies of self-spread cells in culture revealed the
extreme extensibility and plasticity of cell surfaces and interior cytoplasmic
organelles which in contrast to the nucleus, were always in motion.
Never ceasing, particulate organelles e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes
and occasional vesicles moved independently of one another in diverse
directions, never in streams. An inter-connected network of barely-visible
grey 'threads' (connecting with expanded cisternae) permeated the background
cytoplasm. Strikingly, they too were always in motion, the network strand
pattern forever changing. (B) Occasionally, especially in damaged cells,
strands would show internal vesiculation, occasionally extreme yet still
part of the strand. (C) All in all an exciting finding, especially
for Porter, Palade and Siekevitz who, by electron microscopy and other
means, had reported a ribosome-studded 'endoplasmic reticulum'. For
they had had to face ongoing assertions that their electron microscopic
images were not 'real', but rather heavy metal-induced 'artefacts'.
micrographs of chemically-fixed cultured cells, freeze-dried
and examined as whole mounts to show ribosome-studded ER
in filamentous surroundings
As electron microscopy of such cultured cells revealed, their asymmetrically
extended margins were occupied by bundles (or sheets) of close-packed
filaments identical to those of muscle. Yet no myosin filaments nor
even myosin 'heads' were detected, even though biochemically such non-muscle
cells were known to contain myosin. Yet as the cytoplasm displayed also
tubular filaments ('microtubules') like those in motile cilia, it was
important to test whether their force-generating 'dynein' might be powering
the movements. However, although vanadate ion micro-injected into cultured
oviduct cells promptly stopped their cilial motion, the same procedure
had no effect whatever on any of the movements of, or within, cultured
Lacking comparable myosin inhibitors to microinject, I turned to consider
the biological basis of malignancy. For there was a striking difference
between the behaviour of cells in true tissue culture,
where cells maintained their normally ordered pattern
of different cell types, - compared to the culture of separated
cells which continued their separate lives, multiplying continually
while wandering off in separate directions, what amounts to total disorder.
Consider now how individual organisms develop from a single fertilised
cell, step by step in ordered fashion, each step giving the new generation
of cells a new identity, including a new position, that continuing to
maturity - and ever after throughout life. So, in effect because it
is self-correcting following minor injuring, it becomes self-regulatory.
But only while the pattern remains intact! For once the cells are scattered,
there is no possibility of a pattern-determining process.
Many angles emerge, but one is the likely connection to loss-of-function
genetic mutations known to cause retinoblastomas and other malignancies
stemming from 'tumour-suppressor' genes. Indeed, as demonstrated in
Mainz, Germany by Elizabeth Gateff in Drosophila larvae, damage
to lethal (2) giant larvae, (l(2)gl) results in distorted tissue
patterning of the larva, the greater the damage the grosser the distortion,
until with the gene's total loss (homozygous complete deletions of the
locus) there is no pattern, simply a jumble of proliferating wandering
cells. As explained by Knudson and others, much corroborating evidence
comes from the study of human malignancies caused by 'tumour-suppressor'
genes, some inherited (appearing early in life) others long delayed
pending obligatory loss of both alleles of the particular gene.
Its all a bit of a long story, so I've included a 1992 reference here:
Buckley, Ian. Tumor Suppressor Genes, Tissue Pattern Control,
and Tumorigenesis Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 36,
1, 24-38, 1992
Windsurfing on Lake Burley Griffin
Indeed, after that excursion into the unknown I thought I should take
more seriously the out of doors, having not that long ago since taken
to sailboarding about which I soon became enthusiastic, possibly boring
to others. But I had lots of help from young sailors and it was
heaps of fun.
Cell Biology, Cellular Motion, History, Current Affairs, Origins of
and Prevention of War