The Australian National University
Emeritus Faculty Member

Ian Buckley MB, BS, 1951; PhD, (Pathology), 1961

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Dr Ian Buckley

Education and Research

Early education, Ivanhoe Grammar School, Head, Rev. Sydney Buckley.

Post-WW2, Medicine at Melbourne University, graduating 1951. In 1955, began medical research (Experimental Pathology) Department of Pathology, under Prof. E.S.J.King.

1963-4, UICC Eleanor Roosevelt Fellow, Charles Pomerat's laboratory, Pasadena Foundation for Medical Research, Pasadena, California.

1965, Research Fellow, Keith Porter's Cell Biology Laboratory, Harvard University.

1966-7, NH&MRC Research Fellow, Dept. of Pathology, Melbourne University.

1968-1990 Senior Fellow, Department of Experimental Pathology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, ANU, under Prof. Colin Courtice where continued studies on the phenomena and control of cellular (and intra-cellular) movements, including the movements involved in tumour cell invasion and metastasis. See below, and 'Mysteries of Cellular Motion' In Frank Fenner and David Curtis, 'The John Curtin School of Medical Research: The First Fifty Years 1948-1998', pp. 255-258, Brolga Press, 2001.

Family Background
Born, Melbourne,1925, son of Harry and Doris Buckley, one of five, four of whom served in World War II. Miraculously my oldest brother, Noel, survived Iceland-Murmansk convoys (anti-submarine role) as an officer in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (RNVR). As RAAF navigator assigned (under the Empire Air Training Scheme) to RAF Coastal Command's 53 Squadron, my brother Allan Edward did not survive the war defending Britain's trans-Atlantic life-lines against Germany's submarines 'authorised' through the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935. My sister Joan, an Army officer, served in New Guinea as physiotherapist. A late starter, I trained and served as RAAF pilot, 1944-45. Too young, my young sister Dora remained at school.

Since retirement I've concentrated on researching and writing about the origins of the overseas wars Australia has been involved in, an interest followed since WW2, working with the Medical Association for Prevention of War, an organisation earlier formed in Britain by noted epidemiologist Richard Doll (of 'smoking cancer fame') and others responding to the threat of mutual nuclear annihilation brought on by the Cold War.

A summary of the background causes of the wars Australia has been involved in over the past 100 years is found hereunder:

Australia's Foreign Wars: Origins, Costs, Future?!
Eleven historically-based essays to inform and warn Australians and others of the means through which people here and across the world have been led into wars not of their making, wars entirely contrary to their interests and well-being. Indeed, wars counter-productive to all participants and thus, in Churchill's clearly understated terms, "unnecessary" as explained here:       
http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/pages/ian_buckley/  Or illustrated on: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/australiaswars1.htm

A Case History: Britain, Empire Decline, and the Origins of WW1:         
Or, Might the Lessons of the Boer War have 'Saved the Day.

An Emeritus talk of July 18, 2007 considers the circumstances which led Britain to help generate, then take part in the First World War, a war so catastrophically counter-productive to all peoples involved. http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/pages/ian_buckley/Ian_Buckley_Emeritus_L1_2.pdf   Illustrated at: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/casehistory.htm  

The WW1 Gallipoli Campaign: Aims, Options, Outcomes
Essay based on Emeritus talk of April 16, 2008 describing the reasons behind Britain's plans to invade Turkey during WWI, its unsuccessful efforts to entice as Allies the Balkan States, the failed all-naval assault to reach Constantinople, and (only) then its hastily organized land campaign, all of which ended so tragically for the people of all countries involved.        http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/pages/ian_buckley/Ian_Buckley_Emeritus_L2_2.pdf  Also at: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/australiagallipoli.htm

Learning from Adam Smith - Help at Hand Today
Following Adam Smith's wisdom we might come to understand where the modern industrial/financial world went wrong, thus showing us how the world's economies might be justly optimised to prevent further wars, save our over-stressed planet and provide human justice and agreeable living for all. http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/pages/ian_buckley/Adam_Smith_Essay.pdf http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/adamsmith.htm

'Causes of War' in the Context of International Trade: World War One as just one cost of rejecting Adam Smith's wise Counsel'      
Essay on the ill-conceived Western cultural evolutionary path, from the economic corruptions of 18th Century Europe, - with their deliberative exploitations and internecine wars, - to today's even more exaggerated corruptions, parallel exploitations and wars leading all to environmental chaos and internal economic collapse. http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/docs/WWI_Causes_EF_Fin13.pdf

From Adam Smith to the Present Mess via Depressions and Two World Wars: A Short History of Economic and Christian Corruption Across the West.
Essay outlining how the West's highly discriminatory world that Adam Smith condemned, has allowed itself to ignore his wise counsel towards fair trade that could establish a satisfied peaceful world free of war, - choosing instead to continue its preferred unjust special privileges which have brought world of people and Nature to the brink of collapse.
http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/pages/ian_buckley/From_Adam_Smith_to_the_Present_Mess_via_Depressions_and_Two_World_Wars.pdf
http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/adamsmithtothepresentmess.pdf

Survival Through the 21st Century
Appendix D, In Australia's Foreign Wars, a talk to ANU Women's Club, 2002
http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/australiaswarsd.htm

The Hague Conferences and Weapons of Mass Destruction; Our Century's Record
Appendix B, In Australia's Foreign Wars, MAPW Canberra, 1999
http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/australiaswarsb.htm 

Mercantile Origins of the Western World's Current Moral, Economic, Military, Political and Environmental Crises: A Short History of Humankind's Militarized Over-Expansion.
Essay dealing with how Western Society's derision of Adam Smith's analysis of Europe's mercantile political economy - which sought to dominate via monopoly, colonization and war - would end in mutual ruin, its powers rising and falling via mutually catastrophic wars and depressions. And yet how, still not satisfied, the West's continuing full-on arms production-led militarized system has brought our common home, the world of Nature to the brink.
http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/pages/ian_buckley/Mercantile_Origins_of_the_Western_Worlds_Current_Crises.pdf 

'Causes of War' - Australian War Memorial (Education)
Through the good offices of Dr Peter Stanley, then AWM's Senior  Historian, is reproduced hereunder in what was freely accessible for educational purposes on AWM's website from 1997. As seen, it comprised a selection of references taken from books, journals and online sources to assist our understanding of the historical and current origins of war, its destructive effects, how it might be prevented, what might be done to replace unbridled resource and market competition and save both humankind and the planet's absolutely crucial life-supporting environment. It also occurred as a link on Stephen Luscombe's excellent The British Empire website. Without explanation or notice it vanished in 2007. Its archived version appears here, most links having been disabled. Given that the AWM names its Galleries after armaments manufacturers, that may not surprise, yet it is a tragic betrayal of its proper aims as expressed by Lord Gowrie in his 1941 war-time opening speech.(see below)      
http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/pages/ian_buckley/AWM_Causes_of_War.html   

Australia's Governor-General, Lord Gowrie's speech opening the Australian War Memorial, Armistice Day 1941 His plea for honest history, preventing war, and all round sanity. 
http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/australiaswarsl.htm  (i.e., AppendixL)

The Hague Conferences and Weapons of Mass Destruction; Our Century's Record
Appendix B, In Australia's Foreign Wars, MAPW Canberra, 1999. Barbara Tuchman exposes insanity.
http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/australiaswarsb.htm 

The West's Long-failed Economic System: Where to From Here?
Ian Buckley and Nikolaus Fominas
On how the mismanaged Western leadership of the world has failed to keep faith with the commitments it made after two World Wars. Thus, instead of keeping faith with its promises of economic justice, fairness and guarantees to self rule and national independence, it continued with the disastrous mercantile practices which have long been dragging the world into its current catastrophic predicaments
http://www.anu.edu.au/emeritus/members/pages/ian_buckley/The_Wests_Long-failed_Economic_System_-_Where_to_from_Here.pdf

Looking Back - Pathology Meets Biology at the Cellular Level
Working with living tissue observed microscopically in rabbit 'ear chambers' subjected to microprobe radio-frequency injury, one saw intra- and extra-vascular 'bubbles', clear floating vesicles (attracting leucocytes) or, whenever aggregating, 'tubules'. In the 19th Century working with nervous tissue Rudolf Virchow saw similar formations he termed 'myelin figures'. In Paris. Nageotte understood the vesicles as bi-molecular lipid layers, these later known to form from phospholipids, soaps and other amphipathic sources. Perfused with phospholipase A, mine 'popped'.

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(A) whole cell overview with faint ER grey strands.
(B) two images of clear branching network
at 30 second interval
(C) cell showing dilated networks in motion
with 20 second interval

As seen above, movies of self-spread cells in culture revealed the extreme extensibility and plasticity of cell surfaces and interior cytoplasmic organelles which in contrast to the nucleus, were always in motion. Never ceasing, particulate organelles e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes and occasional vesicles moved independently of one another in diverse directions, never in streams. An inter-connected network of barely-visible grey 'threads' (connecting with expanded cisternae) permeated the background cytoplasm. Strikingly, they too were always in motion, the network strand pattern forever changing. (B) Occasionally, especially in damaged cells, strands would show internal vesiculation, occasionally extreme yet still part of the strand. (C) All in all  an exciting finding, especially for Porter, Palade and Siekevitz who, by electron microscopy and other means, had reported a ribosome-studded 'endoplasmic reticulum'. For they had had to face ongoing assertions that their electron microscopic images were not 'real', but rather heavy metal-induced 'artefacts'.

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Electron micrographs of chemically-fixed cultured cells, freeze-dried and examined as whole mounts to show ribosome-studded ER in filamentous surroundings

As electron microscopy of such cultured cells revealed, their asymmetrically extended margins were occupied by bundles (or sheets) of close-packed filaments identical to those of muscle. Yet no myosin filaments nor even myosin 'heads' were detected, even though biochemically such non-muscle cells were known to contain myosin. Yet as the cytoplasm displayed also tubular filaments ('microtubules') like those in motile cilia, it was important to test whether their force-generating 'dynein' might be powering the movements. However, although vanadate ion micro-injected into cultured oviduct cells promptly stopped their cilial motion, the same procedure had no effect whatever on any of the movements of, or within, cultured cells..

Lacking comparable myosin inhibitors to microinject, I turned to consider the biological basis of malignancy. For there was a striking difference between the behaviour of cells in true tissue  culture, where cells maintained their normally ordered  pattern of different cell types, -  compared to the culture of separated cells which continued their separate lives, multiplying continually while wandering off in separate directions, what amounts to total disorder. Consider now how individual organisms develop from a single fertilised cell, step by step in ordered fashion, each step giving the new generation of cells a new identity, including a new position, that continuing to maturity - and ever after throughout life. So, in effect because it is self-correcting following minor injuring, it becomes self-regulatory. But only while the pattern remains intact! For once the cells are scattered, there is no possibility of  a pattern-determining process.

Many angles emerge, but one is the likely connection to loss-of-function genetic mutations known to cause retinoblastomas and other malignancies stemming from 'tumour-suppressor' genes. Indeed, as demonstrated in Mainz, Germany by Elizabeth Gateff in Drosophila larvae, damage to lethal (2) giant larvae, (l(2)gl) results in distorted tissue patterning of the larva, the greater the damage the grosser the distortion, until with the gene's total loss (homozygous complete deletions of the locus) there is no pattern, simply a jumble of proliferating wandering cells. As explained by Knudson and others, much corroborating evidence comes from the study of human malignancies caused by 'tumour-suppressor' genes, some inherited (appearing early in life) others long delayed  pending  obligatory loss of both alleles of the particular gene.  Its all a bit of a long story, so I've included a 1992 reference here: 

Buckley, Ian. Tumor Suppressor Genes, Tissue Pattern Control, and Tumorigenesis Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 36, 1, 24-38, 1992

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Windsurfing on Lake Burley Griffin

Indeed, after that excursion into the unknown I thought I should take more seriously the out of doors, having not that long ago since taken to sailboarding about which I soon became enthusiastic, possibly boring to others. But I had lots of help from young sailors and it was  heaps of fun.

Contact ian.buckley@anu.edu.au

Keywords

Cell Biology, Cellular Motion, History, Current Affairs, Origins of and Prevention of War